Evidence of Ongoing Evolution: Evidence of Increasing Testosterone and the Increase in Preeclampsia


Copyright 2001 by James Michael Howard.


 

Some new support below: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005 Aug 31; [Epub ahead of print]

This is intended to demonstrate that an ongoing, pathological phenomenon may be directly connected to my explanation of human evolution. That is, human evolution is directly influenced by levels of testosterone within populations. It is my hypothesis that testosterone is rising in society. More specifically, it is my hypothesis that the percentage of individuals who produce more testosterone is increasing compared to people who produce less. I suggest the increase in percentage of individuals of higher testosterone is identifiable as a change in children known as the "secular trend." The secular trend is the increase in height and weight and earlier puberty in children. (That is, children of higher testosterone are bigger and reach puberty earlier.) The secular trend is real and was recently documented in the United States (Freedman, D.S., et al., "Secular trends in height among children during 2 decades, The Bogalusa heart study," Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 2000; 154:155-161). A secondary hypothesis suggests increased testosterone causes a number of problems within groups of higher testosterone. This may be occurring at this time. Among these problems may be an increase in a severe complication of pregnancy called preeclampsia. The Associated Press reported March 13, 2001, in: "Dangerous pregnancy complication on the rise," that preeclampsia is on the rise in the United States: "The NIH [National Institutes of Health] just sounded an alarm that the preeclampsia rate rose by nearly a third during the 1990s." The rise in the percentage of individuals of higher testosterone increases the fecundity of humans as well as specific characteristics of the hominid line. However, excessive amounts of testosterone produce characteristic negative phenomena within the hominid line and humans. This periodic cycling of high versus low levels of testosterone within populations has produced periodic shifts in hominid and human populations. Preeclampsia may be one of these negative consequences of excessive testosterone; the increase may represent a consequence of high levels of testosterone.

This may be identifiable in the effects of testosterone on an enzyme, epoxide hydrolase, associated with preeclampsia. Steegers, E.A., et al., "A polymorphism in the gene for microsomal epoxide hydrolase is associated with pre-eclampsia," (Journal of Medical Genetics 2001; 38: 234-237) report a connection between genotype variability of the gene for "epoxide hydrolase" and the incidence of preeclampsia. "Microsomal epoxide hydrolase is an important enzyme involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous toxicants." The "high activity genotype" occurs more often (29%) in preeclampsia than in controls (16%). They conclude that: "Women with the high activity genotype in exon 3, which could reflect differences in metabolic activation of endogenous or exogenous toxic compounds, may have enhanced susceptibility to pre-eclampsia."

Exposure to testosterone is directly involved in expression of epoxide hydrolase in the livers of adult rats (Denlinger, C.L. and Vesell, E.S., "Hormonal regulation of the developmental pattern of epoxide hydrolases. Studies in rat liver," Biochemical Pharmacology 1989 Feb 15; 38(4): 603-10). Treatment of castrated mice with testosterone increases soluble epoxide hydrolase activity between 49% and 400% depending upon the tissue examined (Pinot, F., et al., "Differential regulation of soluble epoxide hydrolase by clofibrate and sexual hormones in the liver and kidneys of mice," Biochemical Pharmacology 1995; 50(4): 501-8). Testosterone activates soluble and mitochondrial expoxide hydrolase activity, while ".estradiol treatment showed a suppressive effect on both subcellular activities in males, but had no effect on female activities." (Inoue, N., et al., "Sex hormone-related control of hepatic epoxide hydrolase activities in mice," Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1993 Oct; 16(10): 1004-7).

A number of reports connect high levels of testosterone directly to preeclampsia: "Levels of the potent androgen testosterone were significantly higher in primigravid women with preeclampsia than in normotensive women with similar gestational and maternal ages. This difference may indicate a role for testosterone in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia." (Acromite, M.T., et al., "Androgens in preeclampsia," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1999; 180: 60-3) and. "A history of preeclampsia an average of 17 yr earlier thus appears to be associated with elevated levels of testosterone, which may contribute to the increased risk of vascular morbidity in such women." (Laivuori, H., et al., "Evidence of high circulating testosterone in women with prior preeclampsia," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1998; 83: 344-7)

It is my hypothesis that testosterone is rising in society. More specifically, it is my hypothesis that the percentage of individuals who produce more testosterone is increasing compared to people who produce less. I suggest the increase in percentage of individuals of higher testosterone is identifiable as a change in children known as the "secular trend." The secular trend is the increase in height and weight and earlier puberty in children. (That is, children of higher testosterone are bigger and reach puberty earlier.) The secular trend is real and was recently documented in the United States (Freedman, D.S., et al., "Secular trends in height among children during 2 decades, The Bogalusa heart study," Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 2000; 154:155-161).

Preeclampsia is increasing in the United States. I suggest this increase results from an increase in the percentage of women who produce increased levels of testosterone. Increased levels of testosterone may activate the "high activity genotype" of epoxide hydrolase in women of higher testosterone. This may account for the increase in preeclampsia.

 

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005 Aug 31; [Epub ahead of print]

 

 

Androgen levels in the third trimester of pregnancy in patients with preeclampsia

Salamalekis E, Bakas P, Vitoratos N, Eleptheriadis M, Creatsas G.

2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aretaieio Hospital, University of Athens, Vas. Sofias Avenue 76, Athens, Greece.

OBJECTIVE(S):: To investigate if testosterone levels are higher in patients with preeclampsia compared to normotensive pregnant patients. STUDY DESIGN:: The levels of serum total and free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and sex hormone binding globulin were estimated in 28 patients during the third trimester of pregnancy with established preeclampsia and 25 normotensive women. RESULTS:: No statistically significant differences were noted between the two groups regarding the maternal age, gestational age, body mass index (BMI) haematocrit and neonatal sex. The mean+/-S.D. total testosterone and free testosterone levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) in the group with preeclapsia compared to the control group. The values of DHEA-S, androstenedione and sex hormone binding globulin were lower in the group with preeclampsia but the difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION(S):: The levels of total and free testosterone appear to be higher in patients with preeclampsia compared to normotensive pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancy. This difference could indicate an involvement of testosterone in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia and stimulates research in the potential role of anti-androgens in the management of preeclampsia.