How the HIV infects and Causes AIDS: HIV Enters and Harms through the Androgen Receptor
Bone Marrow Transplant, HIV, AIDS, and Testosterone
Copyright 2019, James Michael Howard, Fayetteville, Arkansas, U.S.A. (In order to encourage dissemination of this hypothesis, I allow replication of this treatise if no changes are made to this entire document.)
This is to demonstrate that the current finding of loss of HIV infection following bone marrow transplant ion (2019) is caused by loss of testosterone and androgen receptors. I submit this supports my explanation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and HIV AIDS of 1985.
In 1985, I first suggested AIDS was caused by low DHEA. The first reports of low DHEA in AIDS appeared years later. Subsequently, I deduced that the symptoms called "AIDS" are caused by disappearing DHEA. Additionally, I noted that high testosterone was involved in HIV infection. Testosterone levels directly paralleled HIV infections, that is, black males > white males > black females > white females. This connection of testosterone with HIV infections is what recently brought the second reported bone marrow transplant and loss of HIV infection to my attention (2019). (I noticed the first report of this a couple of years back but my attention was focused elsewhere.) (My first internet contribution regarding HIV, AIDS, and DHEA may be viewed at: "AIDS & Dehydroepiandrosterone," at: http://www.anthropogeny.com/AIDS%20and%20DHEA.htm .)
The androgen receptor, reduction / loss of, is involved in the remarkable finding regarding HIV subsequent to bone marrow transplantation. My first consideration of androgen receptors, as "T receptors," and DHEA was 1995: "Dehydroepiandrosterone, Melatonin, and Testosterone in Human Evolution," at: http://anthropogeny.com/Original%20Theory%20of%20Human%20Ev… . (This subsequently was abbreviated and published in a journal in 2001 as" "Androgens in Human Evolution. A New Explanation of Human Evolution," at: http://anthropogeny.com/Androgens%20in%20Human%20Evolution.… .) Of consequence to this is that I recognized that androgen receptors are directly related to human evolution and human health.
This time bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and HIV reduction / loss caused me to do another internet search of BMT, testosterone, and HIV. I found that "androgen deprivation" enhanced the success of BMT (Blood 2009 113:204-213). Since I think androgens stimulate androgen receptors, I think this is the basis of the positive findings regarding loss of HIV as a result of BMT.
"Tip110, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV
-1) Tat-interacting protein of 110 kDa as a negative regulator of androgen
receptor," (J Biol Chem. 2004 May 21;279(21):21766-73) reported that "Taken together, these results indicate that Tip110 is a negative regulator of AR transcriptional activation, and may be directly involved in AR-related developmental, physiological, and pathological processes."
I suggest the foregoing indicates that HIV infection may occur via androgen receptors. This, however, reduces intracellular DHEA and testosterone because this reduces androgen receptors.
It is my hypothesis that evolution selected dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) because it optimizes replication and transcription of DNA, that is, genes. Therefore, DHEA levels affect all tissues and all tissues compete for available DHEA, especially the brain. (I think evolutionary selection of DHEA produced Mammalia. "Hormones in Mammalian Evolution," Rivista di Biologia / Biology Forum 2001; 94: 177-184, http://anthropogeny.com/Hormones%20in%20Mammalian%20Evoluti… ). DHEA naturally begins to decline around the ages of twenty to twenty-five, reaching very low levels in old age. When DHEA is low, or decreasing, genes and tissues are adversely affected according to competition for DHEA resulting in disturbances of gene functions; when DHEA is too low, death occurs. I suggest the symptoms of AIDS are actually the loss of DHEA.
So, in conclusion, I suggest the loss of HIV caused by bone marrow transplantation is caused by disruption of androgen receptors. The HIV is not able to enter cells and replicate.