Why Depo Provera (DMPA, injectable hormonal contraceptive) Increases HIV Infection in Africa
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2011: Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study, Baeten, et al.
I was first to suggest that vulnerability to the HIV is due to low DHEA (("A Theory of the Control of the Ontogeny and Phylogeny of Homo sapiens by the Interaction of Dehydroepiandrosterone and the Amygdala," Copyright 1985, James Michael Howard, Fayetteville, Arkansas, U.S.A. (Registered Copyright TXu220580) Additionally, I subsequently suggested that, in fact, the symptoms of AIDS result from loss of DHEA with time. The first reports of low DHEA in AIDS appeared in 1989.
Furthermore, I have decided that increased testosterone, or more precisely, a high testosterone to DHEA ratio results in increased HIV infection and AIDS. If interested: "Why HIV is so Prevalent in Africa,": http://anthropogeny.com/Why%20HIV%20is%20so%20Prevalent%20in%20Africa.htm Testosterone reduces available DHEA by reducing the conversion of DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) to DHEA. Often, when testosterone is high, DHEAS will also be high.
I suggest that the function of hormonal contraceptives is the reduction in DHEA. It is known that oral contraceptives do reduce DHEA. Of course, the idea is that a sufficient amount of maternal DHEA must be necessary for conception and maintenance of a pregnancy. If DHEA is too low, then pregnancies either do not occur or are aborted.
Depo-Provera, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), increases DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) (J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Apr;93(4):1317-23). Again, DHEAS is the precursor of DHEA. If DHEAS is increased, then DHEA availability is reduced. Injectable DMPA does the same thing as testosterone.
Finally, I suggest contraceptives are lowering DHEA in a population which exhibits an increased testosterone to DHEA ratio. Therefore, contraceptives are increasing HIV infection in this population.